Ted Uhl 1981
Price List A classic price list with some of the most
sought after banknotes ever offered. Featured on the front cover
is a complete set of Abysinnia SPECIMENS with the inside cover
offering an Alaska 25 Ruble walrus skin note. On the back cover is
a Hijaz 100 Pound note that priced at $19,500, quite a sum in
1981, however, this note is unique in that it has a different
watermark than seen on other notes in this series.
by Garry Saint,
Haiti Commemoratives on Hold Both the 1999 Port-au-Prince/Hyppolite 1,000 Gourdes and the 2004 Bicentennials commemorative issues
were held pending legislation to authorize their release during
another unstable political environment. Then the Central Bank
began to issue the six new Bicentennial designs on August 20, 2004.
Although prepared in 1999, the 1,000 Gourdes note was not released
until late 2004. The 1,000
Gourdes includes both 1999 and 2004 dated issues have now reached
the public. Read more...
Kock, King of Cow Island Was Abraham Lincoln hoodwinked by Kock?
An entrepreneur offers Lincoln an attractive alternative to his
with drastic consequences. This is a story of Kock's carefully laid plans gone
badly because of investors who lost confidence in Kock and their Haitian
venture. Pictures of two of the rare Kock notes from a recent auction were graciously
Ponterio of Ponterio & Associates, Inc.
Hungarian Leader of a Peasant Revolt in 1514
by Vladislav II (Úlászló) who succeeded Matthias, the Raven,
Corvinius. With the
Maria Theresa in
1740, Hungary became a province of her Hapsburg
Joseph II, during his reign, later abolished serfdom. Dózsa's
was finally vindicated two centuries later.
One of Haiti's most revered Presidents
institutes reforms which are still being felt a century later. Leslie
the grandson of one of Salomon's generals, François Manigat, becomes
the 36th President of
Haiti in 1988 only to be overthrown by the military. An 1884 2 Gourde note signed by Françoise Manigat highlights this
and Sugar; Synonyms of the Past and Present Another colonial venture,
with a tremendous (at the time) investment of £30,000, fails after a
start. When the Fiji government offers East Indians an indenture
the sugar industry thrives and continues even to this day, but unintended
follow when Indians outnumber native Fijians.
Note of the Haiti 1902 Insurrection Long thought to be notes
issued in 1915, a Haitian lawyer and researcher discovered that this
and scarce series was actually issued during the 1902
insurrection. Highlighting this article is the discovery note, a 1
Series A in Orange, published here for the first time.
The Bank Notes of Papua New Guinea Part 1
The Pre-Independence Years.
This article is a reprint of one
Don did for IBNS in 1992 (Volume 31, No. 2 and No.3.
Paper Money Catalogues used by Russian Collectors
by Mikhail Istomin.
Misha details the Russian catalogues being used in the period of
1996. Included in the article are descriptions of the
RYABCHENKO, CHUCHIN (CHOUCHIN) and
KARDAKOFF catalogues as well as a number of the less well known
catalogues available to collectors interested in the vast number
of notes issued in Russia.
FOREIGN EXCHANGE CERTIFICATES
by Mikhail Istomin.
A complete description, pictures and theory behind the issuance
of Foreign Exchange Certificates by the Soviet Union from 1961
until their last issue un 1991. Several unlisted dates are
identified with pictures and description.
by Bob Reis
Observations about the Collectibles Business & the Web
Reis. Some of Bob's wonderful ruminations, although written in 1998,
continues to ring true even in today's lightening fast pace of the
Bob also has a broad range of articles on his site from folksy, to
that are so scholarly they read like an interesting Masters Thesis.
by Joel Shafer
Vincent An article by Joel Shafer,
Managing Director of Lyn Knight
World Currency Auctions, for Bank
Note Reporter about one of Haiti's
little known 20th century Presidents. Shafer states that while
is portrayed only on the one and two Gourdes...it would be wrong
to think he was a nondescript leader because of this limited
by Jean-Pierre Cloutier
1986-88 Presidential photo's and
Jean-Pierre Cloutier's article
"The Making of a Coup-June 20,
1988"; a 2 year period in which Haiti had
Women in History - Catherine
Flon Archaie is the subject of a Power Point presentation
given by Perth, Australia IBNS member Heather Arthurson. Catherine
Flon was the goddaughter of Emperor Jean-Jacques Dessalines who
asked her to rip out the white of the French flag to create the
first Haitian flag. Flon has been featured on several Haiti
John E. Sandrock
Ancient Chinese Cash Notes - the World's First Paper Money - Part
China has had a long and diversified numismatic
history. From the dawn of antiquity onward, early Chinese traders
used money in one form or another. It was not long after the
Chinese invention of paper that the first paper money came into
existence, making it the oldest paper money to be found in the
Part I discusses the evolution of the
copper cash coin - the mainstay of the Chinese people for two
thousand years - the invention of paper, the discovery of the use
of paper money in China by Marco Polo and the various cash notes
issued by the Tang, Liao, Sung, Hsia, Chin and Yuan dynasties.
In contrast to Yuan heavy
reliance upon paper notes, the follow-on Ming and Ch’ing dynasty
economies were based principally upon copper cash coins and
silver. Paper money was occasionally issued by the Ming
government; however little effort was made to control and maintain
its value. The first Ming paper money appeared in 1374, the
product of the Precious Note Control Bureau (the name was later
changed to the Board of Revenue) specifically set up for this
purpose. The notes themselves were called “Ta Ming T’ung Hsing Pao
Ch’ao”, Great Ming Precious Notes. Emperor T’aitsu’s reign title
was Hung-wu. This nien-hao appeared on these notes and on
successive Ming issues, regardless of the fact that all Ming
emperors had their own reign titles. This was an honor given to
the founder of the dynasty. Ch’uan Pu T’ung Chih refers to
sixty different notes issued between 1368-1426. In all probability
there were many more.
Money of the Kingdom of Heavenly Peace Few people, if
asked today, could identify the
Kingdom of Heavenly Peace, tell you where it was located, or how
or why it came into existence. The Kingdom of Heavenly Peace,
founded in 1850, started as a noble experiment with great promise,
which soon turned into outright rebellion against the Chinese
Empire. The movement went terribly wrong, ultimately claiming the
lives of 25 million Chinese before government troops, aided by
Western forces, restored order.
During their fifteen year civil war the T'ai P'ing rebels, as they
were called, formed a government which included an army, a
civilian civil service bureaucracy, treasury and even a postal
system of their own. This article studies the money of the T'ai
P'ing rebels including both coins and bank notes. Few specimens of
either survive today. The coin issues are varied and interesting.
The bank notes, although referenced in various old numismatic
books, are completely unknown to Westerners, have never been
cataloged, and to my knowledge appear here for the first time.
Wartime Emergency Money
This is the story of a
little known aspect of China's
history and an oft neglected area of numismatics. The setting of
this article is the Chinese city of Shanghai and the year is 1939.
Dire things are about to happen which will drastically change the
way the city goes about its business.
To set the stage the author takes you
through the years leading up to 1937, when the Japanese invaded
China prior to World War II. After abandoning the silver standard
in 1935, the Chinese government set about to unify and stabilize
both coins and bank notes. After working for awhile, inflation set
in due to the war ultimately driving Shanghai's merchants to the
use of emergency money to keep commerce flowing.
Some Russian Bank Note Issues Associated with the Chinese Eastern
occasionally encounter a set of Russian language bank notes dating
from the Bolshevik Revolution, which have been overprinted with a
Chinese hand-stamp. Are these notes Russian, or are they Chinese?
Who issued them and where? ...
purpose? This article reveals the research undergone to reveal the
As these notes are associated with
some very interesting history, it is worth identifying them
correctly and thereby setting things right. This set of 1, 3 and 5
ruble notes were issued by the Han Dao Hedzy Mutual Credit
Society (Han'Daohedzskoe Obshchestvo Vzaimnago Kredita, in
Russian). The notes go on to state that they were issued at the
railroad station "Han Dao Hedzy". Ahah! But where is that, and on
what railroad, you might reasonably ask. Since the notes
themselves do not give us the name of the railroad, merely the
words "railroad station", this presents a bit of a mystery.
Money of Communist China - Part I
Prior to 1949 the People's Republic
of China did not exist as
such. In its place, commencing in 1927, was a Communist party
which controlled scattered
areas throughout China known as "soviets". These bases underwent
many changes; first at the hands of victorious Nationalist armies, and after 1937,
the Japanese invaders. These early Communists were self sufficient
in every way. This included the manufacture and circulation of
their own currency - including both coins and paper money. Driven
out of their southern soviets by Chang Kai-shek's Nationalist army
in 1934, the Communists fled north on their Long March to escape
annihilation and to save their cause. There they stayed to fight
the Japanese, and after World War II, to engage in all out civil
war against the Nationalists for control of all of China.
Part I describes the coins and paper
money used by the early soviets from 1927 to 1934, which period
ended in the Long March north to Shensi province.
Money of Communist China - Part II Part
II describes the money of the Communist Base Areas during the War
of Resistance against the Japanese (1936-1945).
While enduring the hazards of the Long March en-route to Shensi,
Red Army paused in Kweichow province after capturing the city of
Tsunyi. It was here that the Chinese Communist Party elected Mao
as undisputed chairman. Mao's policy based upon mobile and
guerrilla warfare was adopted. Contrary to the majority view,
which called for a new base to be set up in western Sikang
province (former province in southwest China, today part of
Szechuan), Mao insisted upon pushing northward to Shensi where
another Communist base already existed. Mao reasoned that the
Japanese, not the Nationalists, were the immediate threat (after
all, if Japan prevailed there would be no China or Nationalists to
overcome) and he wanted to be close enough to reach the Japanese
when the conditions were right. This could not be accomplished in
far away Sikang. Completing their torturous march, the remnants of
the Red Army eventually settled in Yenan, which in time became the
Communists' wartime capital.
Money of Communist China - Part III Part III
describes the money used in the Communist " Liberated Areas " during
the civil war with the Chinese Nationalists (1945-1949).
The fall of Japan and the
end of World War II found China divided into three parts - the
east coast and the principal cities formerly under Japanese
occupation, the Communists in the north, and the Kuomintang in the
south and west, centered upon their wartime capital in Chungking.
By the end of the war Kuomintang prestige was considerably
diminished after the defeats suffered at the hands of the
Japanese, while the fortunes of the Communists had only increased
through their campaigns to win over the peasant population. China
reverted to the old Lenin struggle between workers and capital.
Japanese Sponsored Coin and Bank Note Issues for the Occupied
Regions of China Occasionally,
even today, one will encounter in a dealer's junk box or stock, a
coin or piece of paper money whose origins lay in Japan's conquest
China (1937-1945). In order to administer such a vast country,
Japan divided China up into administrative regions, each with its
own financial management.
The coin and bank note issues of these Japanese "puppet"
autonomous regions should not be viewed in isolation, as it is the
totality of the story that is interesting. Coin collectors,
perhaps, are aware of the coins, while bank note collectors are
familiar with the various note issues. To appreciate the "total
picture" as to what really transpired during the Japanese
occupation, they must be viewed together.
Those Elusive Chinese Mules This article
examines various possibilities as to how a mule could occur as
well as describing some Chinese mules seen by the author.
What on earth, you might reasonably ask, is a Chinese mule? Is it
a cross between a horse and an ass? Well, perhaps, but the mules
we’re talking about are defined in Webster’s dictionary as “coins
or tokens struck from dies belonging to two different issues”. The
act of combining dies that do not match, thus creating a mule, is
known as muling. These coins are infrequently encountered due to
their rarity; therefore, as a collector of Chinese coins I feel
privileged to own several. I obtained my first mule in an unusual
way – by accident you might say, as the dealer who sold it to me
for the princely sum of $1.50 didn’t recognize it as such and
neither did I at the time. Both of us made the mistake of
accepting the provincial name on the English reverse as bona-fide
without checking the obverse mintmark. It wasn’t until a careful
examination of the coin prior to cataloging, that the discrepancy
was revealed. We will find out more about my mule later. First let
us examine the classification of Chinese coins wherein mules are
to be found.
Cast Coinage of the "Ming Rebels" The
Ming dynasty lasted from 1368 to the year 1644
when China was over-run by barbarians from the north calling
themselves Manchu's. These fierce horsemen quickly conquered the
decadent Ming, in turn establishing their own Ch'ing dynasty,
China's last experiment with imperial rule.
The Ming court did not die easily,
however, as one usurper after the other tried, for forty years, to
reestablish Ming rule. Collectively these men were known as the
"Ming Rebels". Each prince and warlord had his own court, army and
bureaucratic following, setting up bases in various parts of China
from which to overthrow the Ch'ing. Some enjoyed significant
success while others did not. All, however, issued their own cast
coinage for use in the areas they temporarily held. The coins are
well executed, beautiful, specimens and are reasonably easy to
acquire even today.
tracks the history of each rebel revealing both treachery and
brutality in the attempt to eliminate the remaining vestige of
loyalty to the Ming dynasty. The coin issues of each Ming Rebel
are described in detail.
A Monetary History of the Former German Colony of Kiaochou
The defeat of China after two Opium Wars left
the Ch'ing Dynasty weak and disorganized. European powers were
quick to exploit this weakness. Both Britain and France placed
exorbitant demands upon China in the form of monetary indemnity
for expenses they had incurred during the wars, and for the
outright concession of Chinese territory.
weakness, other European powers were quick to seize territorial
concessions and to set up their own 'spheres of influence' within
China for commercial purposes. This is the story of how Germany
became a colonial player in the China trade.
The Significance of Stamps Used on Bank Notes
Every collector, sooner or later, runs into a bank note or two
stamps affixed to them. This article, originally written by Dr.
Arnold Keller, the dean of paper money collectors, explores the
various reasons governments altered the original use of bank notes
by affixing stamps thereto. Some stamps were attached to merely
authenticate the value of the note itself after a change in
government, other uses had tax implications, while still other
applications were efforts to alter the economy of a region or
whole country. Many of these schemes were ingenious beyond belief,
and many of them actually worked!
of stamps found on bank notes which are known to the author are
enumerated in this article. Undoubtedly there are other examples.
Fellow collectors who know of other examples are invited to share
their knowledge with us.
The Use of Bank Notes as an Instrument of Propaganda - Part I
All propaganda is designed to influence
public opinion. Such communications take many forms including the
subtle use of propaganda both printed and concealed which may be
found on a nation's paper currency. Paper money can be a handy
tool in the hands of a cunning propagandist, as seen in the
examples given in Part I. These examples cover propaganda found on
paper money issues from the American Revolution through the
occupation of Europe during World War II.
The ever popular Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary defines
the word propaganda as “ the spreading of ideas, information, or
rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a
cause, or a person”. The dictionary goes on to state that by the
act of propagandizing, such ideas, facts or allegations are
deliberately spread to further one’s cause or to damage an
opposing one. Therefore, propaganda is a deliberate attempt by
countries, individuals, or groups to form, control, or alter the
attitudes of others through communication, with the intent that,
in any given situation, the reaction of those so influenced will
be that which is desired by the propagandist. In totalitarian
states the government controls all permitted communication through
monopolistic political parties and their officials.
The Use of Bank Notes as an Instrument of Propaganda - Part II
This article examines propaganda used on
bank notes during the War in the Pacific against Japan, the Korean
War, the Vietnamese War and finally the Gulf War in Iraq.
Toward the end of World War II, in an effort to hasten the
downfall of the Empire, the Allies commenced dropping airborne
propaganda notes over Japanese occupied territory in widely
separated geographic locations. The first of these was an airdrop
over Singapore and the Malayan States during 1944 and 1945. The
British selected the Japanese Government 10 dollar Malayan
occupation note for their propaganda message. Printed on
Psychological Warfare presses in Calcutta, India these notes, when
ready, were delivered to various Royal Air Force bases in India
and Burma. From there they were delivered over the target area by
the 231st Wing of the RAF.
articles by John E.
Authors who would like to showcase their
please contact us.
| Site Map
| BLOG | Search | Contact
© Copyright: Garry Saint, Esquire
1999-2007 All Rights